A reaction system that uses naturally-occurring microorganisms or microorganisms with special degradability to inoculate liquid or solid phases is a bioreactor. So far, "lift type reactor" and "soil slurry reactor" are two of the most studied reactors. Appropriate nutrients, carbon sources and oxygen are provided by the flow of the water phase, so that the purpose of degrading pollutants in the soil can be achieved. Compared with the solid phase system, the bioreactor effectively degrades the pollutants in a shorter time. This bioreactor technology has been applied in the bioremediation of organic contaminated soil.
Although the bioreactor sounds a bit unfamiliar, it has a fairly simple basic principle. In fact, the stomach is a complex bioreactor that processes food inside the human body. In the stomach, various enzymes digest food, making it a nutrient that we can absorb. The function of the organism is simulated in vitro, and the reaction device designed to produce or detect various chemicals is a bioreactor in bioengineering. In other words, a bioreactor is a device system that uses the biological functions of enzymes or organisms (such as microorganisms) to carry out biochemical reactions in vitro. It is a biological function simulator, such as immobilized cell reactors. Enzymes or fermentation tanks, etc.
Based on the wide application of immobilized enzymes, people have discovered that the multi-functional serialized reaction system is possessed by natural cells. A shortcut to using enzymes or enzyme systems is to immobilize cells by physical or chemical methods. An immobilized cell reactor is like a "life activity function promoter". The immobilized cell technology started in the 1970s, and compared with immobilized enzymes, its practical application is more extensive. For example, the immobilized cell column bed process is used in the United States, Europe, and Japan for large-scale production of high fructose syrup.
1. Significant effect
2. Reduce industrial pollution
3. Low cost
4. Simple equipment
5. Higher efficiency
1. Post-translational modification of the target protein.
2. The problem of separation and purification of transgene expression products.
3. The technology and method of genetic modification.
4. Ethical and moral issues.
5. Improve milk quality.
6. Production of medicinal protein.
7. The problem of site integration of foreign genes in animals.
8. The tissue specificity of milk protein gene expression.
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Advantages and applications of bioreactors
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Bioreactor manufacturing method
A reaction system that uses naturally-occurring microorganisms or microorganisms with special degradation ability to inoculate liquid or solid phases is a bioreactor. So far, "lift type reactor" and "soil slurry reactor" are two of the most studied reactors. Appropriate nutrients, carbon sources and oxygen are provided by the flow of the water phase, so that the purpose of degrading pollutants in the soil can be achieved. Compared with the solid phase system, the bioreactor effectively degrades the pollutants in a shorter time. This bioreactor technology has been applied in the bioremediation of organic contaminated soil.
Bioreactor manufacturing method
The method of manufacturing bioreactors based on bioreactor design data and relevant technical requirements is the bioreactor manufacturing method. Due to the particularity of the biological reaction process, many special requirements have been given to the manufacture of bioreactors.
Special requirements for bioreactor manufacturing
1. It is the first principle to ensure that the entire reaction process is carried out under "sterile conditions" (no heterologous microorganisms or heterogeneous cells or tissues). Therefore, the reactor is relatively easy to sterilize and it is very necessary to maintain the sterility after sterilization. The bioreactor has a relatively simple main structure, which is very easy to clean, minimize dead corners in the reactor, prevent dirt accumulation, and ensure thorough sterilization. Requirements: The inner wall and the pipe welding parts are smooth, free of cracks and collapse. All valves and connections must be sterilized with steam. The shaft seal of the agitator should be tight to minimize leakage.
2. Secondly, when the bioreactor is sterilized and working normally, a certain pressure (air pressure and hydraulic pressure) needs to be maintained in the reactor, so in order to ensure safety, the components of the reactor need to have a certain strength. Before leaving the factory, it is usually necessary to conduct a hydraulic test on the bioreactor to check whether the tightness and pressure bearing capacity meet the design requirements. In addition, the material of the equipment may have an impact on some reaction processes or some reaction processes will corrode the reactor, and the materials should be selected according to the specific conditions. Carbon steel or stainless steel is usually used as the material of the bioreactor, and stainless steel lining or composite stainless steel can be used to make large reactors.
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Advantages and applications of genetically modified bioreactors
Through genetic engineering technology, foreign genes are transferred into the recipient for high-efficiency expression, so that the life system obtained from expression products with important application value is called a genetically modified bioreactor. Transgenic bioreactors are divided into three types: transgenic animal reactors, transgenic plant reactors and transgenic microbial reactors.
The "reactor" indicates that it is a directional production system, which is a device that is directionally constructed and modified for the purpose of obtaining a certain product. The directional construction and transformation of the device is only a life system with self-organization, self-replication, self-regulation, and self-adaptation capabilities for the genetically modified bioreactor. Therefore, the genetically modified bioreactor is like a living fermenter, which can be self-regulated. So it is likened to a "molecular farm". In other words, a genetically modified sheep is an animal bioreactor, and a genetically modified plant is a plant bioreactor.
Compared with relatively more traditional bioreactors, the advantages of genetically modified bioreactors are quite unique. For example, the use of genetically modified animals for drug production. People only need to feed a group of healthy cows or sheep carrying one or several important human genes in a tidy pen, and each cow or sheep is like a pharmaceutical factory that produces active proteins, which can be active on cheap human bodies. Protein drugs are obtained, so the application prospects of genetically modified bioreactors in the fields of food, medicine, chemical industry and environmental protection are very broad. The transgenic plant reactor has the characteristics of pollution-free and sustainable development. Its production only uses light, air, water, soil and other conditions. As plants themselves are part of nature, they participate in various cycles in nature. . Therefore, the production cost is low, and the production process is only a simple process of planting plants, and the planting area determines its scale.
Nowadays, the expression products of various foreign genes are prepared by using animal and plant cells, tissues or organs as bioreactors. With the development of transgenic technology, it has gradually become one of the promising high-tech researches in life science technology. So far, it has been produced and applied in many different fields. The genetically modified bioreactor has a very broad application prospect. It can be used for large-scale production of human protease drugs, vaccines, cytokines and other products. Transgenic animal cell bioreactors, transgenic animal bioreactors and transgenic plant bioreactors are the main three categories.