In May of this year, Wang Zhigang, Minister of the Ministry of Science and Technology, stated at a press conference: China has stepped into an innovative country this year with the science and technology development plan for the next 15 years and the “14th Five-Year Plan”. Two trillion, accounting for 2% of the total GDP.
Main ideas: First, adhere to the "three orientations", facing the frontiers of world science and technology, facing my country's major strategic needs, and facing the main battlefield of economic and social development. Second, we must closely follow and judge the characteristics of the world's scientific and technological development, study and judge the characteristics of the new stage, adhere to Chinese characteristics, and formulate mid- and long-term technological development plans and the "14th Five-Year Plan" technological innovation plan. The key is to rely on scientific and technological personnel. The focus of scientific and technological activities is on human activities. It is the activities of a group of scientific and technological personnel and people who have knowledge of science and technology. Therefore, we must provide services around them so that they can devote themselves to scientific research with peace of mind. Make a career. The third is to strengthen basic and cutting-edge research and make China's contribution to the development of world science and technology.
The "Recommendations of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Formulating the Fourteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-Term Goals for 2035" was released yesterday. The proposals include strengthening the national strategic scientific and technological capabilities. The main scientific and technological recommendations include:
3. Persist in innovation-driven development and comprehensively shape new development advantages
Adhere to the core position of innovation in the overall situation of my country's modernization drive, take scientific and technological self-reliance as the strategic support of national development, face the frontiers of world science and technology, face the main economic battlefield, face the major needs of the country, face the people's life and health, and implement the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education and talent Strengthen the country strategy, innovation-driven development strategy, improve the national innovation system, and accelerate the construction of a scientific and technological power.
7. Strengthen the national strategic scientific and technological strength. Formulate a program of action to strengthen the country through science and technology, improve the new nationwide system under the conditions of a socialist market economy, fight a battle for key core technologies, and improve the overall effectiveness of the innovation chain. Strengthen basic research, focus on original innovation, optimize discipline layout and R&D layout, promote interdisciplinary integration, and improve the supply system of common basic technologies. Aiming at the frontier fields of artificial intelligence, quantum information, integrated circuits, life and health, brain science, biological breeding, aerospace science and technology, deep and deep sea, etc., implement a batch of forward-looking and strategic national major scientific and technological projects. Formulate and implement strategic scientific plans and scientific projects, and promote the optimal allocation and resource sharing of scientific research forces in scientific research institutes, universities, and enterprises. Promote the construction of national laboratories and reorganize the national key laboratory system. Layout and build comprehensive national science centers and regional innovation highlands, and support Beijing, Shanghai, and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area to form international scientific and technological innovation centers. Build a high-end exchange platform for national scientific research papers and scientific and technological information.
8. Enhance the technological innovation capabilities of enterprises. Strengthen the dominant position of enterprises in innovation, and promote the concentration of various innovative elements in enterprises. Promote the in-depth integration of production, education and research, and support enterprises to take the lead in forming innovation consortia and undertake major national science and technology projects. Give full play to the important role of entrepreneurs in technological innovation, encourage enterprises to increase investment in research and development, and implement tax incentives for enterprises’ investment in basic research. Give full play to the leading and supporting role of large enterprises, support the growth of innovative small, medium and micro enterprises as an important source of innovation, strengthen the construction of common technology platforms, and promote the integration and innovation of the upper, middle and lower reaches of the industrial chain, and large and small enterprises.
9. Stimulate the creative vitality of talents. Carry out the principles of respecting labor, knowledge, talents, and creativity, deepen the reform of the talent development system and mechanism, cultivate, introduce and make good use of talents in all aspects, create more world-class technology leaders and innovative teams, and cultivate internationally competitive Reserve army of young scientific and technological talents. Improve the evaluation system of scientific and technological talents oriented by innovation ability, quality, effectiveness and contribution. Strengthen the construction of style of study and adhere to academic integrity. Deepen the reform of the academician system. Improve the innovation incentive and guarantee mechanism, build a profit distribution mechanism that fully reflects the value of innovation elements such as knowledge and technology, and improve the mechanism for sharing rights and interests of scientific researchers' job invention achievements. Strengthen the training of innovative, application-oriented and skilled talents, implement knowledge renewal projects and skills upgrading actions, and expand the team of high-level engineers and high-skilled talents. Support the development of high-level research universities and strengthen the training of basic research talents. Implement a more open talent policy and build a scientific research and innovation highland that gathers outstanding talents at home and abroad.
10. Improve the technological innovation system and mechanism. Deepen the reform of the science and technology system, improve the national science and technology governance system, optimize the national science and technology planning system and operating mechanism, and promote the integrated allocation of projects, bases, talents, and funds in key areas. Improve the organization and management of science and technology projects, and implement systems such as "revealing the rankings". Improve the science and technology evaluation mechanism and optimize the science and technology reward projects. Speed up the reform of scientific research institutes and expand scientific research autonomy. Strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights and greatly improve the transfer and transformation of scientific and technological achievements. Increase investment in research and development, improve the government-based investment mechanism and multi-channel investment mechanism from the society, and increase support for basic frontier research. Improve the financial support innovation system and promote the industrialization and large-scale application of new technologies. Carry forward the spirit of science and craftsmanship, strengthen popular science work, and create a social atmosphere that advocates innovation. Improve the scientific and technological ethics system. Promote open cooperation in science and technology, research and establish global scientific research funds.
4. Accelerate the development of a modern industrial system and promote the optimization and upgrading of the economic system
Adhere to the focus of economic development on the real economy, unswervingly build a manufacturing power, a quality power, a network power, and a digital China, advance the advanced industrial base, modernize the industrial chain, and improve economic quality, efficiency, and core competitiveness.
11. Improve the modernization level of the industrial chain supply chain. Keep the proportion of the manufacturing industry basically stable and consolidate and strengthen the foundation of the real economy. Adhere to independent, controllable, safe and efficient supply chain strategic design and precise policy implementation by industry, and promote the optimization and upgrading of the entire industry chain. Forging the long board of the industrial chain supply chain, based on my country's industrial scale advantages, supporting advantages and first-mover advantages in some fields, build an emerging industrial chain, promote the high-end, intelligent and green traditional industries, and develop service-oriented manufacturing. Improve the national quality infrastructure, strengthen standards, measurement, patent and other systems and capacity building, and carry out in-depth quality improvement actions. Promote the orderly transfer of industries in the country, optimize the layout of regional industrial chains, and support the transformation and development of old industrial bases. Make up for the shortcomings of the industrial chain supply chain, implement the industrial infrastructure reengineering project, increase the research efforts on important products and key core technologies, develop advanced applicable technologies, and promote the diversification of the industrial chain supply chain. Optimize the development environment of the industrial chain and supply chain and strengthen the support of factors. Strengthen international industrial security cooperation, and form a more innovative, higher value-added, safer and more reliable industrial chain supply chain.
12. Develop strategic emerging industries. Accelerate the growth of a new generation of information technology, biotechnology, new energy, new materials, high-end equipment, new energy vehicles, green environmental protection, aerospace, marine equipment and other industries. Promote the in-depth integration of various industries such as the Internet, big data, and artificial intelligence, promote the development of advanced manufacturing clusters, build a number of strategic emerging industry growth engines with unique characteristics, complementary advantages, and reasonable structure, and cultivate new technologies, new products, and new business formats , New model. Promote the healthy development of platform economy and sharing economy. Encourage enterprise mergers and reorganizations to prevent low-level redundant construction.
14. Coordinate and promote infrastructure construction. Construct a modern infrastructure system that is complete, efficient, practical, intelligent, green, safe and reliable. The system will deploy new infrastructure to accelerate the construction of fifth-generation mobile communications, industrial Internet, and big data centers. Accelerate the construction of a powerful country in transportation, improve comprehensive transportation channels, comprehensive transportation hubs and logistics networks, accelerate the network of urban agglomerations and metropolitan areas, and improve the depth of transportation access in rural and border areas. Promote the energy revolution, improve the energy production, supply and storage system, strengthen domestic oil and gas exploration and development, accelerate the construction of oil and gas storage facilities, accelerate the construction of national trunk oil and gas pipelines, build smart energy systems, optimize the layout of power production and transmission channels, and improve the consumption and consumption of new energy Storage capacity to enhance the transmission and distribution capacity to remote areas. Strengthen the construction of water conservancy infrastructure and improve the optimal allocation of water resources and the ability to prevent floods and droughts.
15. Accelerate digital development. Develop the digital economy, promote digital industrialization and industrial digitization, promote the deep integration of the digital economy and the real economy, and create an internationally competitive digital industry cluster. Strengthen the construction of digital society and digital government, and improve the level of digital intelligence in public services and social governance. Establish basic systems and standards for data resource property rights, transaction circulation, cross-border transmission, and security protection to promote the development and utilization of data resources. Expand the orderly opening of basic public information and data, and build a unified and open platform for national data sharing. Ensure national data security and strengthen personal information protection. Improve the digital skills of the whole people and achieve full coverage of information services. Actively participate in the formulation of international rules and standards in the digital field.
5. Form a strong domestic market and build a new development pattern
Adhere to the strategic basis of expanding domestic demand, accelerate the cultivation of a complete domestic demand system, organically integrate the implementation of the strategy of expanding domestic demand with the deepening of supply-side structural reforms, and lead and create new demand with innovation-driven, high-quality supply.
16. Smooth the domestic circulation. Relying on a strong domestic market, link production, distribution, circulation, and consumption, break industry monopoly and local protection, and form a virtuous circle of the national economy. Optimize the supply structure, improve the quality of supply, and enhance the adaptability of the supply system to domestic demand. Promote the balanced development of finance and real estate with the real economy, realize the effective connection of upstream and downstream, production, supply and marketing, and promote the coordination of the relationship between agriculture, manufacturing, service industry, energy resources and other industries. Remove the system and mechanism barriers that hinder the market-oriented allocation of production factors and the circulation of goods and services, and reduce the transaction costs of the whole society. Improve the policy support system for expanding domestic demand and form a higher level of dynamic balance in which demand drives supply and supply creates demand.
17. Promote domestic and international dual cycles. Based on the domestic cycle, give play to comparative advantages, coordinately promote the construction of a strong domestic market and a strong trading country, attract global resource elements with the domestic cycle, make full use of both domestic and international markets, and actively promote domestic and external demand, import and export, and introduction The coordinated development of foreign capital and foreign investment promotes a basic balance of international payments. Improve the integrated control system for domestic and foreign trade, promote the integration of domestic and foreign trade laws and regulations, regulatory systems, operating qualifications, quality standards, inspection and quarantine, certification and accreditation, and promote the same line, the same standard, and the same quality. Optimize the domestic and international market layout, product structure, and trade methods, improve export quality, increase imports of high-quality products, implement trade and investment integration projects, and build a modern logistics system.
19. Expand investment space. Optimize the investment structure, maintain a reasonable growth of investment, and give play to the key role of investment in optimizing the supply structure. Accelerate the completion of shortcomings in infrastructure, municipal engineering, agriculture and rural areas, public safety, ecological environmental protection, public health, material reserves, disaster prevention and mitigation, and people's livelihood protection, promote enterprise equipment update and technological transformation, and expand investment in strategic emerging industries. Promote the construction of new infrastructure, new urbanization, transportation and water conservancy and other major projects, and support the construction of major projects that are conducive to the coordinated development of urban and rural areas. Implement major projects such as the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, the new western land-sea channel, the national water network, the downstream hydropower development of the Yarlung Zangbo River, interstellar exploration, and Beidou industrialization, and promote major scientific research facilities, major ecosystem protection and restoration, public health emergency guarantee, major water diversion and flood control The construction of a number of major projects with strong foundations, increased functions and long-term benefits such as disaster reduction, power transmission and gas transmission, and coastal transportation along the border and rivers. Give full play to the leveraging role of government investment, stimulate the vitality of private investment, and form a market-led endogenous investment growth mechanism.
10. Promote green development and promote the harmonious coexistence of man and nature
Adhere to the concept that green water and green mountains are golden mountains and silver mountains, adhere to respecting nature, complying with nature, and protecting nature, insisting on giving priority to conservation, protection, and natural restoration, and guarding the boundaries of natural ecological security. Deepen the implementation of sustainable development strategies, improve the overall coordination mechanism in the field of ecological civilization, build an ecological civilization system, promote a comprehensive green transformation of economic and social development, and build a modernization of harmonious coexistence between man and nature.
35. Accelerate the promotion of green and low-carbon development. Strengthen land and space planning and use control, implement ecological protection, basic farmland, urban development and other space control boundaries, and reduce the occupation of natural space by human activities. Strengthen legal and policy guarantees for green development, develop green finance, support green technological innovation, promote clean production, develop environmental protection industries, and promote green transformation of key industries and important fields. Promote clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient use of energy. Develop green buildings. Carry out green life creation activities. Reduce the intensity of carbon emissions, support the places where conditions permit, to take the lead in reaching the peak of carbon emissions, and formulate an action plan for peaking carbon emissions before 3030.
36. Continuously improve environmental quality. Enhance the society's awareness of ecological and environmental protection, and intensify the fight against pollution. Continue to carry out pollution prevention and control actions, and establish an ecological environment management system that integrates above and below ground, land and sea. Strengthen the coordinated control of multiple pollutants and regional coordinated governance, strengthen the coordinated control of fine particulate matter and ozone, and basically eliminate heavy pollution weather. Improve the urban and rural living environment, promote full coverage of urban sewage pipe networks, and basically eliminate urban black and odorous water bodies. Promote the reduction of fertilizers and pesticides and control soil pollution, and strengthen the control of white pollution. Strengthen the collection and treatment of hazardous waste and medical waste. Complete the relocation and transformation of hazardous chemical production enterprises in key areas. Pay attention to the treatment of new pollutants. Fully implement the pollutant discharge permit system, and promote the market-based trading of pollutant discharge rights, energy use rights, water rights, and carbon emission rights. Improve the management of binding indicators for environmental protection, energy conservation and emission reduction. Improve the central ecological and environmental protection inspection system. Actively participate in and lead international cooperation on ecological and environmental protection such as climate change.
37. Improve the quality and stability of the ecosystem. Persist in the management of landscapes, forests, fields, lakes and grasses, and build a system of nature reserves with national parks as the main body. Implement major projects for biodiversity conservation. Strengthen the control of alien species. Strengthen the long-term system of rivers and lakes, strengthen the ecological protection and management of major rivers and important lakes and wetlands, and implement a ten-year ban on fishing in the Yangtze River. Scientifically promote the comprehensive management of desertification, rocky desertification, and soil erosion, carry out large-scale land greening operations, and implement the forest head system. Promote the recuperation of grasslands, forests, rivers and lakes, strengthen the protection of black soil, and improve the cropland fallow rotation system. Strengthen the observation of the impact of global climate warming on my country’s vulnerable regions, improve the supervision system of nature reserves and ecological protection red lines, and carry out monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of ecosystem protection.
38. Comprehensively improve the efficiency of resource utilization. Improve the natural resource asset property rights system and laws and regulations, strengthen natural resource investigation, evaluation, monitoring and confirmation of rights registration, establish an ecological product value realization mechanism, improve marketization and diversified ecological compensation, and promote total resource management, scientific allocation, comprehensive conservation and recycling use. Implement national water-saving actions and establish a rigid restraint system for water resources. Improve the level of development and protection of marine resources and mineral resources. Improve the resource price formation mechanism. Promote waste classification, reduction, and resource utilization. Speed up the construction of a recycling system for waste materials.
12. Improve people's quality of life and raise the level of social construction
46. Comprehensively promote the construction of a healthy China. Put the protection of the people's health in the strategic position of priority development, adhere to the policy of prevention first, in-depth implementation of the Healthy China Action, improve the national health promotion policy, weave a national public health protection network, and provide the people with all-round full-cycle health services. Reform the disease prevention and control system and strengthen the functions of monitoring and early warning, risk assessment, epidemiological investigation, inspection and testing, and emergency response. Establish a stable investment mechanism for public health undertakings, strengthen the construction of talent teams, improve basic conditions for disease control, improve public health service projects, and strengthen the grassroots public health system. Implement public health responsibilities of medical institutions and innovate medical and prevention coordination mechanisms. Improve the monitoring and early warning and handling mechanisms for public health emergencies, improve the medical treatment, scientific and technological support, and material guarantee systems, and improve the ability to respond to public health emergencies. Adhere to the public welfare attributes of basic medical and health services, deepen the reform of the medical and health system, accelerate the expansion of high-quality medical resources and the balanced distribution of regions, accelerate the construction of a hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system, strengthen the construction and management assessment of public hospitals, and promote the reform and development of the centralized procurement and use of drugs and consumables organized by the state High-end medical equipment. Support the society to run medical services and promote telemedicine. Adhere to both Chinese and Western medicine and vigorously develop the cause of Chinese medicine. Improve the quality of health education, chronic disease management and disability rehabilitation services, and attach importance to mental health and mental health. Intensify the patriotic health campaign to promote the development of a civilized and healthy lifestyle for all people. Improve the public service system for national fitness. Speed up the development of the health industry.
47. Implement a national strategy to actively respond to an aging population. Formulate a long-term population development strategy and optimize the birth policy
Policies to enhance the inclusiveness of the fertility policy, improve the level of prenatal and postnatal care services, develop the inclusive childcare service system, reduce the cost of childbirth, parenting, and education, promote long-term balanced population development, and improve population quality. Actively develop aging human resources and develop the silver economy. Promote the coordinated development of the elderly care industry and the elderly care industry, improve the basic elderly care service system, develop inclusive elderly care services and mutual supportive elderly care, support families to undertake elderly care functions, cultivate new types of elderly care services, and build home-community institutions to coordinate and integrate medical care and health care A comprehensive elderly care service system and a comprehensive supervision system for elderly care services.
13. Coordinate development and safety to build a higher level of safe China
50. Ensure national economic security. Strengthen economic security risk early warning, prevention and control mechanisms and capacity building to achieve safety and control in key industries, infrastructure, strategic resources, and major technologies. Implement industrial competitiveness survey and evaluation projects to enhance the impact resistance of the industrial system. Ensure food security, guarantee the security of energy and strategic mineral resources. Maintain the safety of important infrastructure such as water conservancy, electricity, water supply, oil and gas, transportation, communications, networks, and finance, and improve the level of intensive and safe use of water resources. Maintain financial security and hold the bottom line of avoiding systemic risks. Ensure ecological safety, strengthen nuclear safety supervision, and maintain safety in new areas. Build an overseas interest protection and risk early warning and prevention system.
51. Guarantee the safety of people's lives. Adhere to the people's supremacy and life supremacy, put the protection of people's lives in the first place, and comprehensively improve the ability to guarantee public safety. Improve and implement the safety production responsibility system, strengthen safety production supervision and law enforcement, and effectively curb serious and serious safety accidents such as hazardous chemicals, mining, construction, and transportation. Strengthen the protection of biological safety, and improve the safety assurance level of products and services related to people's health such as food and medicine. Elevate the standards of natural disaster defense projects such as floods and droughts, forest and grassland fires, geological disasters, earthquakes, etc., speed up the construction of river control projects, speed up the reinforcement of dangerous reservoirs, and comprehensively promote the construction of dikes and flood storage areas. Improve the national emergency management system, strengthen the construction of an emergency material guarantee system, develop catastrophe insurance, and improve disaster prevention, mitigation, disaster relief, and disaster relief capabilities.
14. Accelerate the modernization of national defense and the military, and realize the unity of a rich country and a strong military
Carry out Xi Jinping’s thought on strengthening the army, implement the military strategy of the new era, adhere to the party’s absolute leadership over the people’s army, insist on building the army through politics, reform and strengthening the army, strengthening the army with science and technology, strengthening the army with talents, governing the army according to law, and accelerating the integration of mechanization, informationization, and intelligence Develop, comprehensively strengthen military training and preparations, improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests, and ensure that the goal of the century-old military is achieved in 2027.
53. Improve the quality and efficiency of national defense and military modernization. Speed up the modernization of military theory, advance with the times, innovate war and strategic guidance, improve the military strategic system in the new era, and develop advanced combat theories. Accelerate the modernization of the military organization, deepen the reform of national defense and the military, advance the revolution in military management, accelerate the transformation and construction of services and armed police forces, strengthen strategic forces and new combat forces in new territories, create high-level strategic deterrence and joint combat systems, and strengthen military forces Joint training, joint guarantee, and joint application. Speed up the modernization of military personnel, implement the policy of military education in the new era, improve the three-in-one new military personnel training system, and forge a phalanx of high-quality professional military personnel. Accelerate the modernization of weapons and equipment, focus on independent innovation and original innovation in national defense technology, accelerate the development of strategic frontier disruptive technologies, and accelerate the upgrading of weapons and equipment and the development of intelligent weapons and equipment.
54. Promote the simultaneous improvement of national defense strength and economic strength. Coordinate with the development of national modernization, do a good job of strategic planning, deepen the sharing of resource elements, strengthen coordination of policies and systems, and build an integrated national strategic system and capacity. Promote the coordinated development of key regions, key areas, and emerging areas, and concentrate efforts to implement major projects in the field of national defense. Optimize the layout of national defense science and technology industry and accelerate the process of standardization and generalization. Improve the national defense mobilization system, improve the strengthening of the frontier defense mechanism, strengthen the national defense education of the whole people, and consolidate the unity of military, government, military and civilians.